Vale presently operates seven mines in the greater Sudbury are, in six underground mines and one open pit. The ore bodies consist of copper, nickel and cobalt sulfides, which contain precious metals (PM) including platinum group metals (PGM) plus gold and silver. Underground mining is at typical depths of 3,000-6,000 ft but can extend to more than 7,810 ft in the case of Creighton mine. The ore is mined by drilling holes, loading with explosives and blasting, which creates muck (rubble). The muck is crushed into 6-8 inch pieces, then hoisted to the surface and transported to the Clarabelle Mill via rail or truck.